Low resistivity wafers are heavily doped wafers that have a low resistance to flow of electrical current and high conductivity properties. These wafers can be charged positively (P-type) or negatively (N-type). P-type wafers are doped with boron and have positively charged holes within them that carry current through the wafer. N-type wafers are negatively charged and use electrons to carry electricity through the wafer. These wafers can be doped with phosphorus, arsenic or antimony to get their negative charge.
Wafers can either be doped during the fabrication process, or an intrinsic wafer can have dopants introduced after fabrication. To add dopants after fabrication, there are a few techniques that diffuse the target molecules into the wafer. There are three common ways to introduce dopants to a wafer, empty space diffusion, inner lattice diffusion and changing of places.
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